Max Ernst

1891

Max Ernst was born on 2 April 1891 in Brühl, Germany.

1910 - 1914

While studying classical philology, philosophy, psychology and art history at the University of Bonn, Max Ernst became friends with the Bonn expressionist August Macke. With him he met Robert Delaunay and Guillaume Apollinaire. He abandons his studies to concentrate on art.

1911

Max Ernst meets August Macke, who becomes a close friend of Max Ernst. In the same year Ernst joins the group of the Rheinische Expressionisten in Bonn.

1913

Ernst meets Guillaume Apollinaire and Robert Delaunay, travel to Paris,
Ernst participates in the Erster deutscher Herbstsalon.

1914

He meets Jean Arp, who become his lifelong friend.
In the same year Max Ernst volunteers for military service. Despite his service he is still active as an artist.

1914 – 1918

Military service in the 1st World War.

1916

Max Ernst has his first solo exhibition in the gallery „Der Sturm“. During a vacation at the front he meets George Grosz and Wieland Herzfelde. In 1918 he returns to Cologne.

1918

Shortly before the end of the war, Max Ernst marries Luise Straus in Cologne, who holds a doctorate in art history and whom he met during his studies in Bonn.

1919

He creates his first collages and, together with Johannes Theodor Baargeld, he founds the short-lived Cologne Dada movement, which is joined by Arp and others.

1921

Ernst exhibits for the first time in Paris at the Galerie au Sans Pareil. Together with Paul Eluard and André Breton, he participates in surrealist activities in the early 1920s.

1922

The poetry collections "Répétitions" and "Les malheurs des immortels" were published in collaboration with Paul Eluard. Max Ernst Collagen contributes collages to these.
Max Ernst moves to Paris and lives with the Eluards.

1925

He invents a new graphic rubbing technique for pencil drawings, the „frottage“, and one year later the „grattage“ and „décalcomanie“, adequate for
painting. These techniques determine his typical style.

1926

Divorce of Max Ernst and Luise Straus.

1927

Marriage to Marie-Berthe Aurenche.

1932

First exhibition in America at the Julien Levy Gallery, New York. In the following year he is ostracized by the National Socialists.

1934

Ernst also begins to work on sculptures.

1936

Ernst is represented in Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

1938-1939

Max Ernst moves with the English painter and writer Leonora Carrington to Saint-Martin d'Ardèche (Southern France), where they design a farmhouse with sculptures. When war broke out, Max Ernst was interned several times in French camps.

1941

Ernst flees to the USA with Peggy Guggenheim, whom he married in early 1942.

1943

Divorce Max Ernst and Peggy Guggenheim.

1944

Max Ernst spends the summer with the gallery owner Julien Levy and the artist Dorothea Tanning, whom he marries two years later in a double wedding with Man Ray and Juliet Browner, in Great River on Long Island. He works on a larger number of sculptures.

1948

Ernst receives American citizenship.

1953-1955

Max Ernst returns to France for good together with Dorothea Tanning and moves into a studio in Paris.

1954 

Ernst is honored with the Grand Prix for Painting at the Venice Biennale, which starts his international success. This was followed by major retrospectives and numerous honours.

1976

Max Ernst dies in Paris on April 1, the night of his 85th birthday.

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Galerie Henze & Ketterer & Triebold
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Tel. +41 (0)61 641 77 77
ghkt (at) artgalleries.ch